Publications

RadCAD

Non-Grey and Temperature Dependent Radiation Analysis Methods, T. Panczak (TFAWS Short Course 2005)

Highlights in thermal engineering at Carlo Gavazzi Space (17th Workshop on Thermal and ECLS Software-ESTEC 2003)

Integrating Thermal And Structural Analysis using Thermal Desktop (ICES 1999)

A CAD-based Tool for FDM and FEM Radiation and Conduction Modeling (ICES 1998)

Customizable Multidiscipline Environments for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Modeling (ICES 2004)

Automated Determination of Worst-case Design Scenarios (ICES 2003)

Ground Plane and Near-Surface Thermal Analysis for NASA’s Constellation Programs, Joseph F. Gasbarre, Ruth M. Amundsen, Salvatore Scola - NASA Langley Research Center, Frank B. Leahy and John R. Sharp - NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (TFAWS 2008)

Non-grey Radiation Modeling using Thermal Desktop/SINDAWORKS, Dr. Kevin R. Anderson, Dr. Chris Paine, Jet Propulsion Laboratory(TFAWS 2006)

Emittance & Absorptance for Cryo Testing, D. Green (2005)

FloCAD

CAD-based Methods for Thermal Modeling of Coolant Loops and Heat Pipes (ITherm 2002)

Nonlinear Programming Applied to Thermal and Fluid Design Optimization (ITherm 2002)

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT, P. Schallhorn (TFAWS 2007)

Modeling Two-Phase Loops with Several Capillary Evaporators, D. Khrustalev, K. Wrenn, D. Wolf (TFAWS 2006)

e-Thermal: Automobile Air-Conditioning Module, G. Anand et al,

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool (T. Tumas et al)

The Design and Performance of a Water Cooling System for a Prototype Coupled Cavity linear Particle Accelerator for the Spallation Neutron Source (ASME-JSME 2003)

Adding Heat Pipes and Coolant Loop Models to Finite Element and/or Finite difference Thermal/Structural Models (ICES 2003)

Refrigeration System Design and Analysis (ITherm 2002)

Vapor Compression Cycle Air Conditioning: Design and Transient Simulation (CRTech White Paper)

Steady State and Transient Loop Heat Pipe Modeling (ICES 2000)

Noncondensible Gas, Mass, and Adverse Tilt Effects on the Start-up of Loop Heat Pipes

In recent years, loop heat pipe (LHP) technology has transitioned from a developmental technology to one that is flight ready. The LHP is considered to be more robust than capillary pumped loops (CPL) because the LHP does not require any preconditioning of the system prior to application of the heat load, nor does its performance become unstable in the presence of two-phase fluid in the core of the evaporator. However, both devices have a lower limit on input power: below a certain power, the system may not start properly. The LHP becomes especially susceptible to these low power start-ups following diode operation, intentional shut-down, or very cold conditions. These limits are affected by the presence of adverse tilt, mass on the evaporator, and noncondensible gas in the working fluid. Based on analytical modeling correlated to start-up test data, this paper will describe how the minimum power required to start the loop is increased due to the presence of mass, noncondensible gas, and adverse tilt. The end-product is a methodology for predicting a “safe start” design envelope for a given system and loop design.

 

Control Volume Interfaces: A Unique Tool for a Generalized Fluid Network Modeler (AIAA Thermophysics 2000)

Modeling Transient Operation of Loop Heat Pipes using Thermal Desktop, Dmitry Khrustalev, ATK Space(TFAWS 2007)

Thermal Desktop

The Finite Element Method and Thermal Desktop

Stratified tank and splash modeling using SINDA/FLUINT, Thermal Desktop, FloCAD

The Design and Performance of a Water Cooling System for a Prototype Coupled Cavity linear Particle Accelerator for the Spallation Neutron Source (ASME-JSME 2003)

Adding Heat Pipes and Coolant Loop Models to Finite Element and/or Finite difference Thermal/Structural Models (ICES 2003)

Thermo-electrochemical analysis of lithium ion batteries for space applications using Thermal Desktop, W. Walker, H. Ardebili (2014)

Thermal Modeling of Nanosat, Dai Q. Dinh (2012)

Improvements to a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion, Stephen W. Miller – NASA JSC William Q. Walker – West Texas A&M(2011)

FASTSAT-HSV01 Thermal Math Model Correlation, Callie McKelvey, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center(2011)

Adaptive Thermal Modeling Architecture for Small Satellite Applications, 2Lt. John Anger Richmond, USAF, Colonel John Keesee, USAF Retired (2010)

Collaborative design and analysis of Electro-Optical sensors, Jason Geis, Jeff Lang, Leslie Peterson, Francisco Roybal, David Thomas(2009)

Crew Exploration Vehicle Composite Pressure Vessel Thermal Assessment, Laurie Y. Carrillo, Ángel R. Álvarez-Hernández, Steven L. Rickman - NASA Johnson Space Center(TFAWS 2008)

Associated paper can be download here

Ground Plane and Near-Surface Thermal Analysis for NASA’s Constellation Programs, Joseph F. Gasbarre, Ruth M. Amundsen, Salvatore Scola - NASA Langley Research Center, Frank B. Leahy and John R. Sharp - NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (TFAWS 2008)

Thermal Model Development for Ares I-X, Ruth M. Amundsen, Joe Del Corso - NASA Langley Research Center (TFAWS 2008)

ATROMOS Mars Polar Lander Thermal Model, Elsie Hartman, Hingloi Leung, Freddy Ngo, Syed Shah, Nelson Fernandez, Kenny Boronowsky, Ramon Martinez, Nick Pham, Ed Iskander, Marcus Murbach, Erin Tegnerud, Dr. Periklis Papadopoulos (TFAWS 2008)

Free Molecular Heat Transfer Programs for Setup and Dynamic Updating the Conductors in Thermal Desktop, Eric T. Malroy, Johnson Space Center (TFAWS 2007)

Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module, Xiao-Yen J. Wang and James R.Yuko, NASA Glenn Research Center (TFAWS 2007)

Implementation of STEP-TAS Thermal
Model Exchange Standard in Thermal
Desktop, Tim Panczak and Georg Siebes (TFAWS 2007)

Modeling Transient Operation of Loop Heat Pipes using Thermal Desktop, Dmitry Khrustalev, ATK Space(TFAWS 2007)

WPI Nanosat-3 Final Report, PANSAT - Powder Metallurgy and Navigation Satellite, , Fred J Looft, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (2006)

Modeling and Sizing a Thermoelectric Cooler within a Thermal Analyzer

Thermoelectric couples are solid-state devices capable of generating electrical power from a temperature gradient (known as the Seebeck effect) or converting electrical energy into a temperature gradient (known as the Peltier effect). Thermoelectric coolers, being solid state devices, have no moving parts which makes them inherently reliable and ideal for cooling components in a system sensitive to mechanical vibration. The ability to use TECs to heat as well as cool makes them suitable for applications requiring temperature stabilization of a device over a specified temperature range. Although these devices have been around for years, they are gaining popularity in the aerospace industry for providing temperature control within optical systems and for loop heat pipes.

Historically, modeling and sizing of thermoelectric coolers was left to the analyst to work off-line from the modeling task. The analyst would then need to create his own logic in SINDA for simulating the cooler. This presenation will demonstrate how thermoelectric coolers are now easily modeled using off-the-shelf simulation routines and 3D user interfaces. The analytical demonstration includes sizing of a cooler for a specific application based on area, temperature requirements and heat load through a series of parametric analyses. Cooler performance will also be characterized at the device and system level.

Non-grey Radiation Modeling using Thermal Desktop/SINDAWORKS, Dr. Kevin R. Anderson, Dr. Chris Paine, Jet Propulsion Laboratory(TFAWS 2006)

Analysis and Design of the Mechanical Systems Onboard a Microsatellite in Low-Earth Orbit: an Assessment Study, Dylan Raymond Solomon (2005)

Thermo-elastic wavefront and polarization error analysis of a telecommunication optical circulator, K. Doyle and B. Bell (2005)

Emittance & Absorptance for Cryo Testing, D. Green (2005)

JWST Testing Issues – Thermal & Structural (William Bell, Frank Kudirka, & Paul-W. Young, Aerospace Thermal Control Workshop 2005)

Thermoelastic Analysis in Design (William Bell & Paul-W. Young, Aerospace Thermal Control Workshop 2005)

Parametric Models and Optimization for Rapid Thermal Design, D. Martin (2004)

Margin Determination in the Design and Development of a
Thermal Control System (D. Thunnissen and G. Tsuyuki, ICES 2004)

Automated Multidisciplinary Optimization of a Space-based Telescope (ICES 2002)

Integrated Analysis of Thermal/Structural/
Optical Systems (ICES 2002)

A CAD-based Tool for FDM and FEM Radiation and Conduction Modeling

Thermal engineering has long been left out of the concurrent engineering environment dominated by CAD (computer aided design) and FEM (finite element method) software.  Current tools attempt to force the thermal design process into an environment primarily created to support structural analysis, which results in inappropriate thermal models. As a result, many thermal engineers either build models “by hand” or use geometric user interfaces that are separate from and have little useful connection, if any, to CAD and FEM systems.

This paper describes the development of a new thermal design environment called the Thermal Desktop. This system, while fully integrated into a neutral, low-cost CAD system, and which utilizes both FEM and FD methods, does not compromise the needs of the thermal engineer. Rather, the features needed for concurrent thermal analysis are specifically addressed by combining traditional parametric surface-based radiation and FD based conduction modeling with CAD and FEM methods. The use of flexible and familiar temperature solvers such as SINDA/FLUINT is retained.

The Mars Helicopter will be a technology demonstration conducted during the Mars 2020 mission. The primary mission objective is to achieve several 90-second flights and capture visible light images via forward and nadir mounted cameras. These flights could possibly provide reconnaissance data for sampling site selection for other Mars surface missions. The helicopter is powered by a solar array, which stores energy in secondary batteries for flight operations, imaging, communications, and survival heating. The helicopter thermal design is driven by minimizing survival heater energy while maintaining compliance with allowable flight temperatures in a variable thermal environment. Due to the small size of the helicopter and its complex geometries, along with the fact that it operates with very low power and small margins, additional care had to be paid while planning thermal tests and designing the thermal system. A Thermal Desktop® model has been developed to predict the thermal system’s performance. A reduced-order model (ROM) created with the Veritrek software has been utilized to explore the sensitivities of the thermal system’s drivers, such as electronics dissipations, gas gaps, heat transfer coefficients, etc., as well as to assess and verify the final thermal design. This paper presents the performance of the Veritrek software products and the details of the ROM creation process. The results produced by Veritrek were utilized to study the effect of the major thermal design drivers and Mars environment on the Mars Helicopter in as little as 10 days, an effort

SINDA/FLUINT

Modeling Two-Phase Loops with Several Capillary Evaporators, D. Khrustalev, K. Wrenn, D. Wolf (TFAWS 2006)

Analysis and Test Verification of Transitional Flow in a Dewar Vent, R. Schweickart and G. Mills (2005)

e-Thermal: Automobile Air-Conditioning Module, G. Anand et al,

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool (T. Tumas et al)

The Design and Performance of a Water Cooling System for a Prototype Coupled Cavity linear Particle Accelerator for the Spallation Neutron Source (ASME-JSME 2003)

Refrigeration System Design and Analysis (ITherm 2002)

Design and Transient Simulation of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems (VTMS Conference, 2001)

Steady State and Transient Loop Heat Pipe Modeling (ICES 2000)

Nonlinear Programming Applied to Calibrating Thermal and Fluid Models to Test Data (Semi-Therm 2002)

Sinaps

Vapor Compression Cycle Air Conditioning: Design and Transient Simulation (CRTech White Paper)

A Methodology for Enveloping Reliable Start-up of LHPs

The loop heat pipe (LHP) is known to have a lower limit on input power. Below this limit the system may not start properly creating the potential for critical payload components to overheat. The LHP becomes especially susceptible to these low power start-up failures following diode operation, intentional shut-down of the device, or very cold conditions. These limits are affected by the presence of adverse tilt, mass on the evaporator, and noncondensible gas in the working fluid. Based on analytical modeling correlated to startup test data, this paper will describe the key parameters driving this low power limit and provide an overview of the methodology for predicting a “safe start” design envelope for a given system and loop design. The amount of incipient superheat was found to be key to the enveloping procedure. Superheat levels have been observed to vary significantly based on evaporator design and even from unit to unit of identical designs. Statistical studies of superheat levels and active measures for limiting superheat should be addressed by both the hardware vendors and the system integrators.

 

Steady State and Transient Loop Heat Pipe Modeling (ICES 2000)

Thermohydraulic Solutions for Thermal Control, Propulsion, Fire Suppression, and Environmental Control Systems (ICES 1999)