The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. The SNS will generate and employ neutrons as a research tool in a variety of disciplines including biology, material science, superconductivity, chemistry, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of, in part, a multi-cell copper structure termed a coupled cavity linac (CCL).
The pressure of the cryogen within a Dewar determines the operating temperature since the cryogen is typically in a saturated state. Thus, the operating temperature of a Dewar is directly related to the ambient pressure external to the Dewar and the flow losses associated with venting cryogen. Given the low vapor pressures of some cryogens, such as solid hydrogen, the vent flow from Dewars used in space can enter the transitional and molecular flow regimes.